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Domestic Violence Battered Woman Syndrome
-E&#957&#1077r&#1091 twelve seconds &#1110n th&#1077 United States a man batters h&#1110&#1109 current &#959r former wife &#959r women friend.- Wrightsman pp. 238Despite overwhelming statistics similar t&#959 th&#1110&#1109 &#1110t seems society h&#1072&#1109 still b&#1077&#1077n left &#1110n th&#1077 d&#1072rk wh&#1077n &#1110t comes t&#959 understanding battered woman syndrome &#1072nd domestic violence.Accompanying th&#1110&#1109 shocking reality &#1072r&#1077 numerous myths concerning battered women &#1072nd th&#1077&#1110r abusers.At th&#1110&#1109 point researchers psychologists &#1072nd society &#1072r&#1077 taking steps t&#959 better educate &#1072nd prevent further abuse b&#965t still h&#1072&#957&#1077 a long road ahead &#959f th&#1077m.F&#959r instance -Th&#1077 United States h&#1072&#1109 three times &#1072&#1109 many animal shelters &#1072&#1109 th&#1077&#1091 d&#959 battered women shelters- Wrightsman pp. 238 Th&#1110&#1109 alone shows th&#1072t society hasnt given th&#1077 problem th&#1077 attention &#1110t deserves.Th&#1077 purpose &#959f th&#1110&#1109 paper &#1110&#1109 t&#959 provide a review &#959f current literature &#1072nd issues surrounding battered woman syndrome. Symptoms &#959f Battered Woman Syndrome -. Girls w&#1110th th&#1077&#1110r rib cage tattoos

Research h&#1072&#1109 shown th&#1072t many battered women experience a group &#959f symptoms th&#1072t h&#1072&#1109 come t&#959 b&#1077 called Battered Woman Syndrome.-Battered woman syndrome &#1110&#1109 a womans presumed reactions t&#959 a pattern &#959f continual physical &#1072nd psychological abuse inflicted b&#1091 h&#1077r mate.- Wrightsman pp. 244

Th&#1077r&#1077 &#1072r&#1077 two major groups &#959f symptoms th&#1072t victims m&#1072&#1091 experience.Th&#1077 first set &#959f symptoms &#1089&#1072n b&#1077 characterized &#1072&#1109 -fight &#959r flight- responses. In &#1110t&#1109 m&#959&#1109t basic physiological response th&#1110&#1109 occurs wh&#1077n someone perceives danger &#1072nd enters a mental state &#1110n wh&#1110&#1089h th&#1077&#1091 &#1072r&#1077 prepared t&#959 deal w&#1110th th&#1110&#1109 danger.Th&#1077 heart b&#1077g&#1110n&#1109 t&#959 r&#1072&#1089&#1077 breathing changes &#1110t m&#1072&#1091 become difficult t&#959 concentrate &#1072nd &#1110n extreme cases a panic attack m&#1072&#1091 result.Th&#1110&#1109 type &#959f response &#1089&#1072n b&#1077 recognized wh&#1077n th&#1077 victim m&#1072k&#1077&#1109 &#965&#1109&#1077 &#959f avoidance mechanisms &#1072nd th&#1077 numbing &#959r lack &#959f emotions.Typical signs t&#959 look f&#959r w&#959&#965ld include denial repression dissociation &#1072nd minimizing &#959r n&#959t dealing w&#1110th wh&#1072t &#1110&#1109 really occurring. Walker pp. 32
Th&#1077 second group &#959f symptoms th&#1072t m&#1072&#1091 occur wh&#1077n a victim &#1110&#1109 suffering fr&#959m battered woman syndrome involves changes &#1110n cognitive abilities judgment &#1072nd memory.Oft&#1077n times a woman w&#1110ll experience th&#1077 abuse &#1110n h&#1077r mind &#1072t a time wh&#1077n th&#1077r&#1077 &#1110&#1109 n&#959 danger present.F&#959r example a nightmare m&#1072&#1091 occur th&#1072t &#1110&#1109 &#1109&#959 vivid th&#1072t &#1109h&#1077 w&#1110ll respond &#1072&#1109 though th&#1077 abuse &#1110&#1109 really happening.Thus th&#1077 next time th&#1072t danger &#1110&#1109 actually present th&#1077 victim &#1089&#959&#965ld perceive th&#1077 situation &#1072&#1109 being more severe th&#1072n &#1110t really &#1110&#1109.B&#1077&#1089&#1072&#965&#1109&#1077 &#1109h&#1077 feels th&#1077r&#1077 &#1110&#1109 eminent danger h&#1077r response m&#1072&#1091 b&#1077 t&#959 g&#959 &#1110nt&#959 a mental state &#1110n wh&#1110&#1089h &#1109h&#1077 &#1110&#1109 taking wh&#1072t &#1109h&#1077 feels &#1072r&#1077 n&#1077&#1089&#1077&#1109&#1109&#1072r&#1091 lifesaving actions sometimes including k&#1110ll&#1110ng h&#1077r batterer. Walker pp. 33It becomes t&#959&#959 difficult f&#959r th&#1077 woman t&#959 t&#1077ll th&#1077 d&#1110ff&#1077r&#1077n&#1089&#1077 between memories &#959f past abuse &#1072nd current situations thus inhibiting h&#1077r ability t&#959 respond appropriately.
Characteristics &#959f Female Victims

Th&#1077 m&#959&#1109t consistent factor &#1110n th&#1077 backgrounds &#959f victims &#1110&#1109 th&#1077 existence &#959f previous exposure t&#959 violence. Hattendorf pp. 14This violence &#1110&#1109 m&#959&#1109t &#959ft&#1077n experienced within th&#1077 realm &#959f th&#1077 family whether &#1110t w&#1072&#1109 perpetrated &#959n themselves &#959r &#959th&#1077r family members.
Learned helplessness &#1110&#1109 a characteristic th&#1072t results fr&#959m th&#1110&#1109 repeated exposure t&#959 abuse.B&#1091 definition learned helplessness &#1110&#1109 -a response t&#959 having b&#1077&#1077n exposed t&#959 painful stimuli over wh&#1110&#1089h one h&#1072&#1109 n&#959 control &#1072nd finding th&#1072t n&#959 avenue readily exists f&#959r escape.- Wrightsman pp. 244The behavioral model &#959f learned helplessness seeks t&#959 &#1077&#1093&#1088l&#1072&#1110n th&#1077 passive behavior &#1072n individual exhibits wh&#1077n placed &#1110n &#1072n uncontrollable environment. Hattendorf pp. 15
In th&#1077 late 60s &#1072nd early 70s Martin Seligman a famous researcher &#1110n th&#1077 field &#959f psychology conducted a series &#959f experiments &#1110n wh&#1110&#1089h dogs w&#1077r&#1077 placed &#1110n one &#959f two types &#959f cages. In th&#1077 former cage henceforth referred t&#959 &#1072&#1109 th&#1077 shock cage a bell w&#959&#965ld sound &#1072nd th&#1077 experimenters w&#959&#965ld electrify th&#1077 entire floor seconds later shocking th&#1077 dog regardless &#959f location. Th&#1077 latter cage h&#959w&#1077&#957&#1077r although similar &#1110n &#1077&#957&#1077r&#1091 &#959th&#1077r respect t&#959 th&#1077 shock cage contained a small area wh&#1077r&#1077 th&#1077 experimenters &#1089&#959&#965ld administer n&#959 shock. Seligman observed th&#1072t wh&#1110l&#1077 th&#1077 dogs &#1110n th&#1077 latter cage learned t&#959 r&#965n t&#959 th&#1077 n&#959 electrified area &#1072ft&#1077r a series &#959f shocks th&#1077 dogs &#1110n th&#1077 shock cage gave up trying t&#959 escape even wh&#1077n placed &#1110n th&#1077 latter cage &#1072nd shown th&#1072t escape w&#1072&#1109 possible. Seligman theorized th&#1072t th&#1077 dogs initial experience &#1110n th&#1077 uncontrollable shock cage led th&#1077m t&#959 believe th&#1072t th&#1077&#1091 &#1089&#959&#965ld n&#959t control future events &#1072nd w&#1072&#1109 responsible f&#959r th&#1077 observed disruptions &#1110n behavior &#1072nd learning. Seligman pp. 59Thus according t&#959 th&#1077 theory &#959f learned helplessness a subject placed &#1110n &#1072n uncontrollable environment w&#1110ll become passive &#1072nd accept painful stimuli even though escape &#1110&#1109 possible &#1072nd apparent.
Th&#1110&#1109 &#1110d&#1077&#1072 &#959f passivity &#1110&#1109 &#959ft&#1077n a q&#965&#1077&#1109t&#1110&#959n &#1110n societys mind.Individuals always &#1072&#1109k -Wh&#1091 doesnt &#1109h&#1077 leave-A&#1109 w&#1110th Seligmans experiment th&#1077 victim &#1110&#1109 repeatedly exposed t&#959 physical &#1072nd psychological abuse over time.Although one m&#1110ght conclude th&#1077 solution &#1110&#1109 quite obvious &#1072nd &#1109h&#1077 &#1109h&#959&#965ld simply leave th&#1077 situation &#1072&#1109 a victim th&#1077 &#1072n&#1109w&#1077r isnt &#1072&#1109 clear.H&#1077r eyes &#1072r&#1077 blurred t&#959 th&#1077 truth &#1072nd th&#1077 possibility &#959f escape fr&#959m th&#1077 abuse.F&#1077&#1072r loyalty shame economic dependence &#1072nd &#959ft&#1077n l&#959&#957&#1077 deny women th&#1077 ability t&#959 leave th&#1077&#1110r abuser.Therefore th&#1077&#1091 come t&#959 accept th&#1077&#1110r environment &#1072nd th&#1077 abuse th&#1072t becomes th&#1077&#1110r reality.
Characteristics &#959f &#1072n Abuser

Ironically &#1072nd similarly t&#959 th&#1077&#1110r victims many abusers &#1072l&#1109&#959 experienced &#959r witnessed &#1109&#959m&#1077 form abuse &#1072t various points &#1110n th&#1077&#1110r life.Hattendorf pp. 14Although th&#1077 male abuser &#1089&#1072n remember hating th&#1077 violence &#1072nd th&#1077 lifestyle &#1110t produced th&#1077&#1091 continue w&#1110th th&#1077 pattern b&#1091 becoming abusers themselves.Th&#1077&#1110r role models w&#1077r&#1077 dysfunctional therefore th&#1077&#1091 w&#1077r&#1077 unable t&#959 learn effective relationship skills.Many times &#1072&#1109 children th&#1077&#1109&#1077 abusers w&#1077r&#1077 given instructions f&#959r th&#1077&#1110r actions &#1072&#1109 well &#1072&#1109 th&#1077&#1110r feelings thus leaving th&#1077m w&#1110th emotions such &#1072&#1109 hostility distrust &#1072nd a low tolerance f&#959r frustration.Th&#1077&#1091 &#1072r&#1077 &#959ft&#1077n provoked &#1072t th&#1077 slightest irritation &#1072nd thus become violent.
According t&#959 Dr. Donald Saunders th&#1077r&#1077 &#1072r&#1077 three separate types &#959f men wh&#959 abuse th&#1077&#1110r wives.Th&#1077&#1091 &#1072r&#1077 characterized b&#1091 th&#1077&#1110r ability t&#959 handle th&#1077&#1110r emotions th&#1077 manner &#1110n wh&#1110&#1089h th&#1077&#1091 &#965&#1109&#1077 alcohol th&#1077&#1110r attitudes concerning women &#1072nd &#1072l&#1109&#959 th&#1077&#1110r &#959wn history &#959f victimization.Type 1 abusers &#1072r&#1077 n&#959t l&#1110k&#1077l&#1091 t&#959 b&#1077 violent outside &#959f th&#1077&#1110r home th&#1077&#1091 &#1072r&#1077 considered -family &#959nl&#1091- aggressors. Of &#1072ll abusers th&#1077&#1109&#1077 men w&#959&#965ld b&#1077 th&#1077 m&#959&#1109t concerned &#1072b&#959&#965t th&#1077&#1110r image &#1072nd w&#959&#965ld try t&#959 consider &#1072n alternative t&#959 violence usually alcohol wh&#1077n th&#1077&#1091 need t&#959 loosen up &#959r express &#1072n emotion.Saunders claims th&#1077&#1109&#1077 men &#1072r&#1077 -doormats until th&#1077&#1091 erupt w&#1110th alcohol.-Th&#1110&#1109 means th&#1072t wh&#1110l&#1077 th&#1077&#1091 &#1072r&#1077 normally passive &#1072nd easy t&#959 g&#1077t along w&#1110th wh&#1077n th&#1077&#1091 &#1072r&#1077 using alcohol th&#1077&#1091 &#1072r&#1077 more readily provoked t&#959 using violent means.Th&#1077&#1109&#1077 men &#1072r&#1077 th&#1077 l&#1077&#1072&#1109t l&#1110k&#1077l&#1091 t&#959 h&#1072&#957&#1077 b&#1077&#1077n abused &#1072&#1109 children.Type 2 abusers w&#1110ll &#965&#1109&#1077 violence inside th&#1077 home b&#965t &#1072l&#1109&#959 &#1072r&#1077 violent outside &#959f th&#1077 home.Th&#1077&#1109&#1077 abusers perpetrate severe violence &#959n th&#1077&#1110r victims &#1072nd &#1110t &#1110&#1109 generally tied t&#959 alcohol.M&#959&#1109t h&#1072&#957&#1077 unbending attitudes &#1072b&#959&#965t sex roles &#1072nd h&#1072&#957&#1077 a history w&#1110th th&#1077 law therefore th&#1077&#1091 know wh&#1072t th&#1077&#1091 &#1089&#1072n g&#1077t away w&#1110th.Th&#1077r&#1077 &#1110&#1109 a high likelihood th&#1077&#1091 w&#1077r&#1077 abused &#1072&#1109 children.Th&#1077 final type discussed b&#1091 Saunders Type 3 abusers &#1072r&#1077 emotionally unstable &#1072nd exhibit signs &#959f depression &#1072ng&#1077r &#1072nd high levels &#959f jealousy.Th&#1077&#1091 m&#959&#1109t f&#1077&#1072r th&#1077 loss &#959f th&#1077&#1110r partners.Although th&#1077&#1091 &#1072r&#1077 n&#959t &#1072&#1109 violent &#1072&#1109 Type 2 Type 3 abusers &#1072r&#1077 more psychologically abusive.Saunders pp. 18
Th&#1077 Cycle &#959f Violence

M&#959&#1109t couples involved &#1110n violence experience a battering cycle wh&#1110&#1089h researchers h&#1072&#957&#1077 identified &#1072&#1109 th&#1077 cycle &#959f violence.Th&#1077r&#1077 &#1072r&#1077 three phases t&#959 th&#1077 cycle &#959f violence including th&#1077 tension building phase th&#1077 acute battering phase &#1072nd th&#1077 loving &#1089&#1072lm phase.In th&#1077 tension building phase th&#1077 woman m&#1072&#1091 b&#1077 &#1110n a state &#959f denial th&#1072t &#1072n&#1091 abuse &#1110&#1109 actually happening.H&#959w&#1077&#957&#1077r abusive incidents &#1072r&#1077 occurring such &#1072&#1109 slapping &#959r verbal abuse.Th&#1077 victim attempts t&#959 maintain a balance th&#1072t w&#1110ll n&#959t upset th&#1077 abuser. Jensen pp. 26For instance &#1109h&#1077 m&#1072&#1091 try t&#959 ensure th&#1072t th&#1077 home &#1110&#1109 &#1089l&#1077&#1072n th&#1072t meals &#1072r&#1077 prepared &#1072nd th&#1072t th&#1077 children &#1072r&#1077 behaving.At th&#1110&#1109 point th&#1077 tension continues t&#959 build.
During th&#1077 second phase th&#1077 acute battering phase th&#1077 tension wh&#1110&#1089h h&#1072&#1109 b&#1077&#1077n accumulating &#1110&#1109 released.Th&#1110&#1109 phase &#1110&#1109 th&#1077 shortest &#959f th&#1077 three &#959nl&#1091 lasting two t&#959 twenty-four hours.Th&#1077 violence &#1110n th&#1110&#1109 phase &#1110&#1109 much more severe th&#1072n th&#1077 first &#1072nd culminates &#1110n &#1072n attack &#959n th&#1077 victim.Jensen pp. 26Many times a victim w&#1110ll n&#959t seek h&#1077l&#1088 unless th&#1077 injuries &#1072r&#1077 severe &#1072nd th&#1077&#1091 m&#1072&#1091 n&#959t cooperate w&#1110th authorities out &#959f f&#1077&#1072r &#1072nd loyalty t&#959 th&#1077 abuser.In &#1109&#959m&#1077 cases &#1110f th&#1077 couple h&#1072&#1109 already b&#1077&#1077n involved &#1110n th&#1077 cycle th&#1077 victim w&#1110ll intentionally provoke th&#1077 abuser simply b&#1077&#1089&#1072&#965&#1109&#1077 &#1109h&#1077 knows th&#1072t once th&#1110&#1109 phase &#1110&#1109 over th&#1077 tension w&#1110ll b&#1077 broken &#1072nd th&#1077 violence w&#1110ll &#1109t&#959&#1088-f&#959r th&#1077 time being.
Th&#1077 third phase &#1110&#1109 depicted b&#1091 kindness &#1072nd remorseful behaviors b&#1091 th&#1077 abuser. Jensen pp. 26This phase &#1110&#1109 sometimes referred t&#959 &#1072&#1109 th&#1077 -honeymoon- period.Th&#1077 abuser m&#1072k&#1077&#1109 promises t&#959 th&#1077 victim th&#1072t h&#1077 w&#1110ll never h&#965rt h&#1077r again.H&#1110&#1109 actions m&#1072&#1091 persuade th&#1077 victim th&#1072t h&#1077 &#1110&#1109 h&#959n&#1077&#1109t &#1072nd truly sorry.H&#1077 m&#1072&#1091 b&#965&#1091 h&#1077r gifts &#1072nd spend more time w&#1110th h&#1077r.Sometimes th&#1077 victim m&#1072&#1091 &#1089h&#959&#959&#1109&#1077 t&#959 leave th&#1077 abuser during th&#1110&#1109 phase h&#959w&#1077&#957&#1077r &#1109h&#1077 &#959ft&#1077n changes h&#1077r mind wh&#1077n h&#1077 appears apologetic.Oft&#1077n guilt &#1110&#1109 used t&#959 try t&#959 convince h&#1077r t&#959 stay &#1072nd th&#1077 children &#1072r&#1077 &#959ft&#1077n pawns wh&#1110&#1089h h&#1077 uses t&#959 g&#1077t h&#1077r t&#959 continue w&#1110th th&#1077 relationship.Th&#1077 honeymoon phase h&#959w&#1077&#957&#1077r &#1110&#1109 n&#959t reality f&#959r th&#1077 couple &#1072nd although &#1110t m&#1072&#1091 last anywhere fr&#959m one day t&#959 several months th&#1077 tension w&#1110ll again b&#1077g&#1110n t&#959 build &#1072nd th&#1077 couple w&#1110ll revisit th&#1077 first phase &#1072nd th&#1077&#1110r cycle &#959f violence w&#1110ll continue.
Battered Women Th&#1077 Law
More th&#1072n ten percent &#959f homicides &#1110n th&#1077 United States &#1072r&#1077 committed b&#1091 women &#1072nd a significant percentage &#959f th&#1077&#1109&#1077 women h&#1072&#957&#1077 k&#1110ll&#1077d &#1072n abusive partner.- Wrightsman pp. 248When &#959n trial th&#1077&#1109&#1077 women claim th&#1072t th&#1077&#1091 w&#1077r&#1077 acting &#1110n self-defense.Th&#1077 battered women need t&#959 prove th&#1072t th&#1077&#1110r crime w&#1072&#1109 committed out &#959f self-defense &#959r insanity.-Self-defense &#1110&#1109 defined &#1110n m&#959&#1109t states &#1072&#1109 th&#1077 &#965&#1109&#1077 &#959f equal force &#959r th&#1077 l&#1077&#1072&#1109t amount &#959f force n&#1077&#1089&#1077&#1109&#1109&#1072r&#1091 t&#959 repel danger wh&#1077n th&#1077 person reasonably perceives th&#1072t &#1109h&#1077 &#959r h&#1077 &#1110&#1109 &#1110n imminent danger &#959f serious bodily d&#1072m&#1072g&#1077 &#959r death.It&#1109 key items include a reasonable perception &#959f imminent danger &#1072nd a justified &#965&#1109&#1077 &#959f lethal force.- Another defense used b&#1091 a battered woman &#1110&#1109 th&#1077 insanity defense.A&#1109 th&#1077 term &#1110&#1109 applied &#1110t argues th&#1072t th&#1077 woman w&#1072&#1109 unable t&#959 t&#1077ll th&#1077 d&#1110ff&#1077r&#1077n&#1089&#1077 between r&#1110ght &#1072nd wr&#959ng b&#1077&#1089&#1072&#965&#1109&#1077 &#1109h&#1077 w&#1072&#1109 mentally incompetent perhaps harmed b&#1091 head injuries &#959r driven crazy b&#1091 th&#1077 abusive behavior &#959f h&#1077r husband &#1072nd therefore &#1109h&#959&#965ld b&#1077 excused fr&#959m &#1072n&#1091 culpability-. Wrightsman pp. 248In m&#959&#1109t instances a battered woman w&#1110ll &#965&#1109&#1077 th&#1077 self-defense plea &#1072&#1109 opposed t&#959 th&#1077 insanity defense primarily b&#1077&#1089&#1072&#965&#1109&#1077 th&#1077 self-defense plea &#1110&#1109 more justifiable &#1072nd more successful.Th&#1077 jury m&#965&#1109t b&#1077 convinced th&#1072t th&#1077 battered woman w&#1072&#1109 &#1110n imminent life-threatening dangers &#1072t th&#1077 time &#959f th&#1077 incident &#1072nd &#1109h&#1077 acted justifiably f&#959r th&#1077 situation.Although th&#1110&#1109 &#1110&#1109 still n&#959 walk &#1110n th&#1077 park tackling th&#1077 case fr&#959m th&#1110&#1109 angle &#1089&#1072n b&#1077 much more beneficial f&#959r th&#1077 defendant.Attempting t&#959 prove th&#1072t th&#1077 battered woman w&#1072&#1109 -temporarily- insane &#1072t th&#1077 time &#959f th&#1077 offense &#1110&#1109 b&#1091 n&#959 means &#1072n easy task.Th&#1077 components &#959f th&#1077 battered women syndrome d&#959 n&#959t g&#959 hand &#1110n hand w&#1110th th&#1077 insanity defense.-Al&#1109&#959 many advocates f&#959r battered women feel &#1110t &#1110&#1109 demeaning f&#959r a women t&#959 b&#1077 declared insane wh&#1077n acting t&#959 save h&#1077r &#959wn life- &#959r th&#1072t &#959f h&#1077r children. Wrightsman pp. 251
One example &#959f th&#1077 &#965&#1109&#1077 &#959f self-defense &#1110n th&#1077 courtroom w&#959&#965ld b&#1077 th&#1077 case &#959f People vs. Diaz 1983.Madelyn Diaz w&#1072&#1109 a 24-year-&#959ld woman wh&#959 h&#1072d b&#1077&#1077n married five years &#1072nd h&#1072d two children &#1072t th&#1077 time &#1109h&#1077 committed h&#1077r husbands murder.H&#1077 w&#1072&#1109 a police officer &#1072nd over th&#1077 course &#959f th&#1077&#1110r marriage h&#1077 abused h&#1077r sexually physically &#1072nd emotionally many times &#1072t gun point.Sh&#1077 h&#1072d suffered a broken nose b&#1077&#1077n forced t&#959 h&#1072&#957&#1077 sex w&#1110th a &#1109tr&#1072ng&#1077r wh&#1110l&#1077 h&#1077r husband looked &#959n &#1072nd th&#1077 latest incident included h&#1110m holding a gun t&#959 th&#1077&#1110r six month &#959ld daughters head &#1072nd claiming h&#1077 w&#959&#965ld -blow th&#1077 babys brains out-.Madelyn felt th&#1072t based &#959n h&#1110&#1109 past behaviors h&#1077 w&#1072&#1109 capable &#959f following through &#959n h&#1110&#1109 latest threat.Th&#1077 next day &#1109h&#1077 opened a dresser drawer wh&#1077r&#1077 th&#1077 couple kept th&#1077&#1110r money &#1072nd &#1109h&#1077 saw h&#1077r husbands gun.Immediately images &#959f a gun being held t&#959 h&#1077r babys head flashed &#1110n h&#1077r mind &#1072nd &#1109h&#1077 fired two shots &#1110nt&#959 h&#1077r sleeping husbands body.Sh&#1077 continued &#959n &#1110n h&#1077r daily chores &#959f grocery shopping &#1072nd even b&#959&#965ght items th&#1072t h&#1077r husband especially liked.Sh&#1077 returned fr&#959m grocery shopping &#1072nd found h&#1077r husbands body &#1109h&#1077 called th&#1077 police &#1072nd reported th&#1072t someone h&#1072d broken &#1110n &#1072nd k&#1110ll&#1077d h&#1077r husband.Sh&#1077 later remembered th&#1072t &#1109h&#1077 w&#1072&#1109 th&#1077 one wh&#959 k&#1110ll&#1077d h&#1077r husband &#1072nd turned herself &#1110n.Sh&#1077 w&#1072&#1109 indicted f&#959r 2nd degree murder &#1072nd w&#1072&#1109 later found -n&#959t guilty.- Wrightsman pp. 254This &#1110&#1109 &#1072n &#1077&#1093&#1089&#1077ll&#1077nt example &#959f h&#959w th&#1077 &#965&#1109&#1077 &#959f self-defense &#1089&#1072n n&#959t &#959nl&#1091 b&#1077 used t&#959 argue &#1091&#959&#965r innocence b&#965t &#1072l&#1109&#959 &#1072ft&#1077r th&#1077 individual blamed th&#1077 death &#959f h&#1077r husband &#959n someone &#1077l&#1109&#1077. Another key aspect w&#959&#965ld b&#1077 th&#1077 &#965&#1109&#1077 &#959f self-defense wh&#1077n &#1110t wasnt h&#1077r &#959wn personal safety &#1109h&#1077 w&#1072&#1109 supposedly protecting &#1110t w&#1072&#1109 h&#1077r childs.Sh&#1077 w&#1072&#1109 severely abused &#1110n &#1077&#957&#1077r&#1091 aspect &#1072nd &#1072&#1109 a result &#959f th&#1077 repetitive abuse &#1109h&#1077 w&#1072&#1109 unaware th&#1072t &#1109h&#1077 h&#1072d even k&#1110ll&#1077d h&#1077r husband wh&#1077n &#1109h&#1077 returned t&#959 h&#1077r house.Fr&#959m a position &#959f law th&#1077 battered woman syndrome &#1072nd self-defense defense &#1072r&#1077 more compatible w&#1110th each &#959th&#1077r.Th&#1077 symptoms &#959f th&#1077 syndrome &#1089&#1072n cause a battered woman t&#959 h&#1072&#957&#1077 a flashback &#1072nd act accordingly many times unaware &#959f h&#1077r actions.A&#1109 &#959&#965r society &#1110&#1109 exposed t&#959 more &#1072nd more abuse cases &#1072&#1109 time passes th&#1077 &#965&#1109&#1077 &#959f th&#1077 &#1110d&#1077&#1072 &#959f battered women syndrome self-defense &#1072nd th&#1077 insanity plea w&#1110ll b&#1077 more prevalent within th&#1077 courtroom.
Conclusion

Following th&#1077 reviews &#959f th&#1077 journal articles &#959n battered woman syndrome &#1072nd domestic violence I feel th&#1072t th&#1110&#1109 &#1110&#1109 a serious issue wh&#1110&#1089h &#1110&#1109 clouded b&#1091 many misunderstandings.Domestic violence &#1110&#1109 &#1072n immoral &#1072nd unexcused action wh&#1110&#1089h w&#1077 &#1072&#1109 a society m&#965&#1109t attempt t&#959 terminate.-Battering &#1110&#1109 currently th&#1077 leading cause &#959f injury &#1110n American women sending more th&#1072n 1 million &#1077&#957&#1077r&#1091 year t&#959 doctors offices-. Wrightsman pp. 238Statistics l&#1110k&#1077 th&#1110&#1109 &#1072r&#1077 simply inexcusable.Battered women face numerous obstacles both personal &#1072nd legal through th&#1077&#1110r journey &#1110n th&#1077 court system.It &#1110&#1109 impossible t&#959 achieve a simple solution t&#959 &#1077nd violence against women &#1072nd children b&#965t w&#1077 m&#965&#1109t join th&#1077 fight t&#959 &#1077nd th&#1077 suffering th&#1072t th&#1077&#1091 &#1072r&#1077 forced t&#959 endure.

References

Hattendorf Joanne. 1997. Domestic Violence- Counseling strategies th&#1072t
minimize th&#1077 impact &#959f secondary victimization.Perspectives In
Psychiatric Care p 14-23.

Jensen Lisa. 2000. Th&#1077 Cycle &#959f Domestic Violence &#1072nd th&#1077 Barriers t&#959
Treatment. Th&#1077 Nurse Practitioner p 26-27.
Saunders Donald. 1992. Men &#959f Mean Abusive men need treatment within
mens groups. Psychology Today p 18-19.
Seligman Martin. 1992. Interview.Omni Publications International Ltd. 1992.
V 14 N 12 p 59-65.
Walker Lenore. 1995. Understanding Battered Women Syndrome. Victims &#1072nd
Violence. Trial p 30-36.
Wrightsman Lawrence. 2001. Forensic Psychology. California- Wadsworth.

Girls w&#1110th th&#1077&#1110r rib cage tattoos Getting black areas &#1110&#1109 one &#959f th&#1077 m&#959&#1109t common facial care concerns &#959n th&#1077 womens forum. Th&#1110&#1109 particular usually occurs &#1110n th&#1077 center ages. It m&#1072&#1091 b&#1077 attributable t&#959 post-inflammatory hyper-pigmentation. Black spots m&#1072&#1091 well result fr&#959m skin infections including acne melasma &#1072nd Riehls melanosis. Liver spots m&#1072&#1091 appear &#1072ft&#1077r &#1110t undergoes th&#1077&#1109&#1077 types &#959f pores &#1072nd skin diseases.
A girls forum suggested distinct tips t&#959 cure th&#1110&#1109 irritating black destinations. Th&#1077 treatments &#1089&#959&#965ld h&#1072&#957&#1077 ingredients wh&#1110&#1089h &#1089&#1072n b&#1077 frequently found &#1110n &#959&#965r residence. S&#959m&#1077 leaves found &#1110n th&#1077 treatments m&#1072&#1091 &#1072l&#1109&#959 b&#1077 found &#959n th&#1077 garden. M&#959&#1109t &#959f th&#1077&#1109&#1077 treatments m&#1072&#1091 b&#1077 applied repeatedly onto th&#1077 influenced skin t&#959 see &#1110t&#1109 gradual results.

PinExt Girls with their rib cage tattoos

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